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Chikungunya Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Mutation of a Conserved Nuclear Export Sequence in Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Disrupts Host Cell Nuclear Import.
    Mutation of a Conserved Nuclear Export Sequence in Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Disrupts Host Cell Nuclear Import. [Journal Article]Viruses 2017 Oct 20; 9(10)VJacobs SC, Taylor A, Herrero LJ, et al. Transmitted by mosquitoes; chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Capsid protein...Transmitted by mosquitoes; chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleus. In encephalitic alphaviruses nuclear translocation induces host cell shut off; however, the role of capsid protein nuclear localisation in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using replicon systems, we investigated a nuclear export sequence (NES) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein; analogous to that found in encephalitic alphavirus capsid but uncharacterised in CHIKV. The chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) export adaptor protein mediated CHIKV capsid protein export from the nucleus and a region within the N-terminal part of CHIKV capsid protein was required for active nuclear targeting. In contrast to encephalitic alphaviruses, CHIKV capsid protein did not inhibit host nuclear import; however, mutating the NES of capsid protein (∆NES) blocked host protein access to the nucleus. Interactions between capsid protein and the nucleus warrant further investigation.

  • Ten years since the last Chikungunya virus outbreak in Italy: history repeats itself.
    Ten years since the last Chikungunya virus outbreak in Italy: history repeats itself. [Editorial]Blood Transfus 2017 Oct; 15(6):489-490.BTMarano G, Pupella S, Pati I, et al. Publisher Full Text

  • Image Gallery: Flagellate bullous exanthem in chikungunya.
    Image Gallery: Flagellate bullous exanthem in chikungunya. [Letter]Br J Dermatol 2017 Oct; 177(4):e162.BJVinay K, Saikia UN, Dogra S 

  • Emerging infectious disease outbreaks: estimating disease risk in Australian blood donors travelling overseas.
    Emerging infectious disease outbreaks: estimating disease risk in Australian blood donors travelling overseas. [Journal Article]Vox Sang 2017 Oct 19.VSCoghlan A, Hoad VC, Seed CR, et al. The predicted unmitigated likelihood of infection in blood components manufactured from donors travelling to the above-mentioned areas was very low, with the possibility of severe consequences in a tra...Publisher Full TextInternational travel assists spread of infectious pathogens. Australians regularly travel to South-eastern Asia and the isles of the South Pacific, where they may become infected with infectious agents, such as dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses that pose a potential risk to transfusion safety. In Australia, donors are temporarily restricted from donating for fresh component manufacture following travel to many countries, including those in this study. We aimed to estimate the unmitigated transfusion-transmission (TT) risk from donors travelling internationally to areas affected by emerging infectious diseases.We used the European Up-Front Risk Assessment Tool, with travel and notification data, to estimate the TT risk from donors travelling to areas affected by disease outbreaks: Fiji (DENV), Bali (DENV), Phuket (DENV), Indonesia (CHIKV) and French Polynesia (ZIKV).We predict minimal risk from travel, with the annual unmitigated risk of an infected component being released varying from 1 in 1·43 million to <1 in one billion and the risk of severe consequences ranging from 1 in 130 million to <1 in one billion.The predicted unmitigated likelihood of infection in blood components manufactured from donors travelling to the above-mentioned areas was very low, with the possibility of severe consequences in a transfusion recipient even smaller. Given the increasing demand for plasma products in Australia, the current strategy of restricting donors returning from select infectious disease outbreak areas to source plasma collection provides a simple and effective risk management approach.

  • External quality assessment for arbovirus diagnostics in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, 2013-2016: improving laboratory quality over the years.
    External quality assessment for arbovirus diagnostics in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, 2013-2016: improving laboratory quality over the years. [Journal Article]Western Pac Surveill Response J 2017 Jul-Sep; 8(3):27-30.WPAbdad MY, Squires RC, Cognat S, et al. Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region. As such, laboratories need to be equipped for their accurate detection. In 2011...Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region. As such, laboratories need to be equipped for their accurate detection. In 2011, to ensure test proficiency, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific piloted an external quality assessment (EQA) programme for arbovirus diagnostics. By 2016, it had grown into a global programme with participation of 96 laboratories worldwide, including 25 laboratories from 19 countries, territories and areas in the Region. The test performance of the 25 laboratories in the Region in 2016 was high with 23 (92%) reporting correct results in all specimens for dengue and chikungunya viruses. For Zika virus, 18 (72%) of the 25 laboratories reported correct results in all specimens, while seven (28%) demonstrated at least one error. When comparing iterations of this EQA programme in the Region between 2013 and 2016, the number of participating laboratories increased from 18 to 25. The first round only included dengue virus, while the latest round additionally included chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses. Proficiency for molecular detection of dengue virus remained high (83-94%) over the four-year period. The observed proficiency for arbovirus diagnostics between 2013 and 2016 is an indicator of laboratory quality improvement in the Region.

  • Pregnant Women Hospitalized with Chikungunya Virus Infection, Colombia, 2015.
    Pregnant Women Hospitalized with Chikungunya Virus Infection, Colombia, 2015. [Journal Article]Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Nov; 23(11)EIEscobar M, Nieto AJ, Loaiza-Osorio S, et al. In 2015 in Colombia, 60 pregnant women were hospitalized with chikungunya virus infections confirmed by reverse transcription PCR. Nine of these women required admission to the intensive care unit beca...In 2015 in Colombia, 60 pregnant women were hospitalized with chikungunya virus infections confirmed by reverse transcription PCR. Nine of these women required admission to the intensive care unit because of sepsis with hypoperfusion and organ dysfunction; these women met the criteria for severe acute maternal morbidity. No deaths occurred. Fifteen women delivered during acute infection; some received tocolytics to delay delivery until after the febrile episode and prevent possible vertical transmission. As recommended by a pediatric neonatologist, 12 neonates were hospitalized to rule out vertical transmission; no clinical findings suggestive of neonatal chikungunya virus infection were observed. With 36 women (60%), follow-up was performed 1 year after acute viremia; 13 patients had arthralgia in >2 joints (a relapse of infection). Despite disease severity, pregnant women with chikungunya should be treated in high-complexity obstetric units to rule out adverse outcomes. These women should also be followed up to treat potential relapses.

  • Development and evaluation of a rapid molecular diagnostic test for Zika virus infection by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
    Development and evaluation of a rapid molecular diagnostic test for Zika virus infection by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. [Journal Article]Sci Rep 2017 Oct 18; 7(1):13503.SRKurosaki Y, Martins DBG, Kimura M, et al. The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease caused an enormous number of infections in Central and South America, and the unusual increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly associate...Publisher Full TextThe recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease caused an enormous number of infections in Central and South America, and the unusual increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection aroused global concern. Here, we developed a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay using a portable device for the detection of ZIKV. The assay specifically detected ZIKV strains of both Asian and African genotypes without cross-reactivity with other arboviruses, including Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. The assay detected viral RNA at 14.5 TCID50/mL in virus-spiked serum or urine samples within 15 min, although it was slightly less sensitive than reference real time RT-PCR assay. We then evaluated the utility of this assay as a molecular diagnostic test using 90 plasma or serum samples and 99 urine samples collected from 120 suspected cases of arbovirus infection in the states of Paraíba and Pernambuco, Brazil in 2016. The results of this assay were consistent with those of the reference RT-PCR test. This portable RT-LAMP assay was highly specific for ZIKV, and enable rapid diagnosis of the virus infection. Our results provide new insights into ZIKV molecular diagnostics and may improve preparedness for future outbreaks.

  • Rickettsial retinitis: Direct bacterial infection or an immune-mediated response?
    Rickettsial retinitis: Direct bacterial infection or an immune-mediated response? [Journal Article]Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct; 65(10):1038-1041.IJChawla R, Pundlik GA, Chaudhry R, et al. Infectious retinitis postfebrile illness is known to be caused by chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, Bartonella, Lyme's disease, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia, Herpes viruses etc. Rickettsia is Gram...Infectious retinitis postfebrile illness is known to be caused by chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, Bartonella, Lyme's disease, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia, Herpes viruses etc. Rickettsia is Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropods vectors. Ocular involvement is common including conjunctivitis, keratitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis, retinitis, retinal vascular changes, and optic nerve involvement. Retinitis lesions in rickettsia can occur because of an immunological response to the bacteria or because of direct invasion and proliferation of bacteria in the inner retina. We report such a case of bilateral rickettsial retinitis proven by serology which worsened on systemic steroids and responded dramatically to therapy with oral doxycycline and steroid taper. We thus believe that direct bacterial invasion plays a major role in the pathogenesis of rickettsial retinitis.

  • Diurnal Temperature Range and Chikungunya Virus Infection in Invasive Mosquito Vectors.
    Diurnal Temperature Range and Chikungunya Virus Infection in Invasive Mosquito Vectors. [Journal Article]J Med Entomol 2017 Oct 10.JMAlto BW, Wiggins K, Eastmond B, et al. Climate strongly influences the geographic distribution and timing of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. Environmental temperature affects phenotypic traits of mosquitoes including vector competence for...Publisher Full TextClimate strongly influences the geographic distribution and timing of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. Environmental temperature affects phenotypic traits of mosquitoes including vector competence for arboviruses mediated by changes in infection, extrinsic incubation period and in rates of transmission. Most experiments, however, are done at constant temperatures. In nature, mosquitoes are more likely to experience daily fluctuations in temperature. Here we compare disseminated infection (leg infection) and saliva infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) from Florida following oral exposure to an Asian genotype of chikungunya virus emergent in the Americas. We evaluated experimentally the effect of variable temperature regimens on disseminated infection and saliva infection of these Aedes species. Each of three temperature regimes had approximately the same average temperature (27-28°C), but differed in the magnitude of the diurnal temperature range (DTR). The large DTR was 8.0°C (range 23-31°C) and the small DTR was 4.0°C (range 26-30°C) which approximate ranges in different locations of Florida during July-October when risk of transmission is highest. The constant temperature was set at 27°C. Testing three geographic populations of each mosquito species, significant effects on disseminated infection were detected for an interaction between temperature regime and geographic population for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. There were no significant treatment effects of temperature, geographic population, or temperature by geographic population interaction on saliva infection for either mosquito species. Constant temperature resulted in a higher viral load in the saliva of Ae. albopictus, but not Ae. aegypti, compared to conditions where the temperature fluctuated.

  • Serological and spatial analysis of alphavirus and flavivirus prevalence and risk factors in a rural community in western Kenya.
    Serological and spatial analysis of alphavirus and flavivirus prevalence and risk factors in a rural community in western Kenya. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 17; 11(10):e0005998.PNGrossi-Soyster EN, Cook EAJ, de Glanville WA, et al. Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undia...Publisher Full TextAlphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undiagnosed and unreported, with febrile illnesses often assumed to be malaria. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the seroprevalence of alphaviruses and flaviviruses among children (ages 5-14, n = 250) and adults (ages 15 ≥ 75, n = 250) in western Kenya. Risk factors for seropositivity were explored using Lasso regression. Overall, 67% of participants showed alphavirus seropositivity (CI95 63%-70%), and 1.6% of participants showed flavivirus seropositivity (CI95 0.7%-3%). Children aged 10-14 were more likely to be seropositive to an alphavirus than adults (p < 0.001), suggesting a recent transmission period. Alphavirus and flavivirus seropositivity was detected in the youngest participants (age 5-9), providing evidence of inter-epidemic transmission. Demographic variables that were significantly different amongst those with previous infection versus those without infection included age, education level, and occupation. Behavioral and environmental variables significantly different amongst those in with previous infection to those without infection included taking animals for grazing, fishing, and recent village flooding. Experience of recent fever was also found to be a significant indicator of infection (p = 0.027). These results confirm alphavirus and flavivirus exposure in western Kenya, while illustrating significantly higher alphavirus transmission compared to previous studies.