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Chikungunya Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Urban Chikungunya in the Middle East and North Africa: A systematic review.
    Urban Chikungunya in the Middle East and North Africa: A systematic review. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 26; 11(6):e0005707.PNHumphrey JM, Cleton NB, Reusken CBEM, et al. Seroprevalence studies and outbreak reports suggest endemic transmission of urban cycle CHIKV in at least the Red Sea region and Pakistan. However, indications of seroprevalence despite a low quantity ...Publisher Full TextThe epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is not well characterized despite increasing recognition of its expanding infection and disease burden in recent years.Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed records describing the human prevalence and incidence, CHIKV prevalence/infection rates in vectors, outbreaks, and reported cases for CHIKV across the MENA region. We identified 29 human seroprevalence measures, one human incidence study, one study reporting CHIKV infection rates in Aedes, and nine outbreaks and case reports/series reported in the MENA from 1970-2015. Overall, anti-CHIKV antibody or reports of autochthonous transmission were identified from 10 of 23 countries in the MENA region (Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen), with seroprevalence measures among general populations (median 1.0%, range 0-43%) and acute febrile illness populations (median 9.8%, range 0-30%). Sudan reported the highest number of studies (n = 11) and the highest seroprevalence among general populations (median 12%, range 0-43%) and undifferentiated acute febrile illness populations (median 18%, range 10-23%). CHIKV outbreaks were reported from Djibouti, Pakistan, Sudan, and Yemen.Seroprevalence studies and outbreak reports suggest endemic transmission of urban cycle CHIKV in at least the Red Sea region and Pakistan. However, indications of seroprevalence despite a low quantity of CHIKV epidemiologic research from the region suggests that CHIKV transmission is currently underrecognized.

  • Accuracy of Zika virus disease case definition during simultaneous Dengue and Chikungunya epidemics.
    Accuracy of Zika virus disease case definition during simultaneous Dengue and Chikungunya epidemics. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(6):e0179725.PlosBraga JU, Bressan C, Dalvi APR, et al. Our derived score prediction model had the best performance because it demonstrated the highest sensitivity and specificity, 86·6% and 78·3%, respectively. This Zika case definition also had the highes...Zika is a new disease in the American continent and its surveillance is of utmost importance, especially because of its ability to cause neurological manifestations as Guillain-Barré syndrome and serious congenital malformations through vertical transmission. The detection of suspected cases by the surveillance system depends on the case definition adopted. As the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection still relies on the use of expensive and complex molecular techniques with low sensitivity due to a narrow window of detection, most suspected cases are not confirmed by laboratory tests, mainly reserved for pregnant women and newborns. In this context, an accurate definition of a suspected Zika case is crucial in order for the surveillance system to gauge the magnitude of an epidemic.We evaluated the accuracy of various Zika case definitions in a scenario where Dengue and Chikungunya viruses co-circulate. Signs and symptoms that best discriminated PCR confirmed Zika from other laboratory confirmed febrile or exanthematic diseases were identified to propose and test predictive models for Zika infection based on these clinical features.Our derived score prediction model had the best performance because it demonstrated the highest sensitivity and specificity, 86·6% and 78·3%, respectively. This Zika case definition also had the highest values for auROC (0·903) and R2 (0·417), and the lowest Brier score 0·096.In areas where multiple arboviruses circulate, the presence of rash with pruritus or conjunctival hyperemia, without any other general clinical manifestations such as fever, petechia or anorexia is the best Zika case definition.

  • Peridomestic Aedes malayensis and Aedes albopictus are capable vectors of arboviruses in cities.
    Peridomestic Aedes malayensis and Aedes albopictus are capable vectors of arboviruses in cities. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 26; 11(6):e0005667.PNMendenhall IH, Manuel M, Moorthy M, et al. Our study reveals the prevalence of competent vectors in peri-domestic areas, including Ae. malayensis for which we established the vector status. Epidemics can be driven by infection foci, which are e...Publisher Full TextDengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. In Singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector Aedes aegypti. However, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. Epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not targeted by control programs. We investigated the role of vectors in peri-domestic areas.We carried out entomological surveys to identify the Aedes species present in vegetated sites in highly populated areas and determine whether mosquitoes were present in open-air areas frequented by people. We compared vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis with Ae. aegypti after oral infection with sympatric dengue serotype 2 and chikungunya viruses. Mosquito saliva was tested for the presence of infectious virus particles as a surrogate for transmission following oral infection.We identified Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis throughout Singapore and quantified their presence in forested and opened grassy areas. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. malayensis can occupy sylvatic niches and were highly susceptible to both arboviruses. A majority of saliva of infected Ae. malayensis contained infectious particles for both viruses.Our study reveals the prevalence of competent vectors in peri-domestic areas, including Ae. malayensis for which we established the vector status. Epidemics can be driven by infection foci, which are epidemiologically enhanced in the context of low herd immunity, selective pressure on arbovirus transmission and the presence of infectious asymptomatic persons, all these conditions being present in Singapore. Learning from Singapore's vector control success that reduced domestic vector populations, but has not sustainably reduced arboviral incidence, we suggest including peri-domestic vectors in the scope of vector management.

  • First Detection of Chikungunya Virus in Breast Milk.
    First Detection of Chikungunya Virus in Breast Milk. [Journal Article]Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Jun 22.PICampos GS, Bandeira ACA, Rocha VFD, et al. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has never been detected in human breast milk. This is a brief report of CHIKV infection in a breastfeeding woman of a 3 month old baby. The mother´s CHIKV-RT PCR was positive ...Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has never been detected in human breast milk. This is a brief report of CHIKV infection in a breastfeeding woman of a 3 month old baby. The mother´s CHIKV-RT PCR was positive in serum, urine and milk. The baby´s CHIKV serology and RT-PCR were negative. The detection of CHIKV in milk raises clinical and epidemiologic questions.

  • Preparing clinicians for (re-) emerging arbovirus infectious diseases in Europe.
    Preparing clinicians for (re-) emerging arbovirus infectious diseases in Europe. [Journal Article, Review]Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Jun 22.CMSigfrid L, Reusken C, Eckerle I, et al. There are a range of arboviruses of clinical significance to Europe. There has been an increase in notifications of endemic and travel-imported arbovirus cases in recent years and an increased geograph...Arthropod-borne virus (Arbovirus) infections are considered an emerging threat for Europe, with an increase in cases in recent decades. The increase in global travel and trade has contributed to the introduction of vectors and viruses into new geographical areas. Tropical arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya have re-emerged causing local, sporadic outbreaks ignited by travel-imported cases. The recent Zika virus outbreak in the Americas highlighted a need to strengthen preparedness to (re-)emerging arbovirus infections globally.To strengthen preparedness for the early identification of (re-)emerging arbovirus outbreaks in Europe and highlight areas for research.An evidence review of published and grey literature together with consultations with European arbovirus experts.This paper presents an overview of endemic and travel-imported arboviruses of clinical significance in Europe. The overview includes syndromic presentation, risk factors for infection and risk of transmission. Moreover, an update on treatments and vaccinations and surveillance notifications and reporting. The paper also presents predictive modelled risks of further geographical expansion of vectors and viruses.There are a range of arboviruses of clinical significance to Europe. There has been an increase in notifications of endemic and travel-imported arbovirus cases in recent years and an increased geographical range of vectors and viruses. The heterogeneity in surveillance reporting indicates a risk for the early identification of (re-)emerging outbreaks. The data presented shows a need to strengthen preparedness to (re-)emerging arbovirus infections and a need for research into neglected arboviruses, risks of non-vector transmission and effective therapeutics and vaccinations.

  • Infection-related microcephaly after the 2015 and 2016 Zika virus outbreaks in Brazil: a surveillance-based analysis.
    Infection-related microcephaly after the 2015 and 2016 Zika virus outbreaks in Brazil: a surveillance-based analysis. [Journal Article]Lancet 2017 Jun 21.Lctde Oliveira WK, de França GVA, Carmo EH, et al. The distribution of infection-related microcephaly after Zika virus outbreaks has varied across time and Brazilian regions. Reasons for these apparent differences remain to be elucidated.Publisher Full TextOn Nov 11, 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a Public Health Emergency of National Concern in response to an increased number of microcephaly cases, possibly related to previous Zika virus outbreaks. We describe the course of the dual epidemics of the Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in Brazil up to Nov 12, 2016, the first anniversary of this declaration.We used secondary data for Zika virus and microcephaly cases obtained through the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance systems from Jan 1, 2015, to Nov 12, 2016. We deemed possible Zika virus infections during pregnancy as all suspected cases of Zika virus disease and all initially suspected, but later discarded, cases of dengue and chikungunya fever. We defined confirmed infection-related microcephaly in liveborn infants as the presence of a head circumference of at least 2 SDs below the mean for their age and sex, accompanied by diagnostic imaging consistent with an infectious cause, or laboratory, clinical, or epidemiological results positive for Zika virus or STORCH (infectious agents known to cause congenital infection, mainly syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus). We excluded cases of congenital anomalies or death without microcephaly. We analyse the spatial clustering of these diseases in Brazil to obtain the kernel density estimation.Two distinct waves of possible Zika virus infection extended across all Brazilian regions in 2015 and 2016. 1 673 272 notified cases were reported, of which 41 473 (2·5%) were in pregnant women. During this period, 1950 cases of infection-related microcephaly were confirmed. Most cases (1373 [70·4%]) occurred in the northeast region after the first wave of Zika virus infection, with peak monthly occurrence estimated at 49·9 cases per 10 000 livebirths. After a major, well documented second wave of Zika virus infection in all regions of Brazil from September, 2015, to September, 2016, occurrence of microcephaly was much lower than that following the first wave of Zika virus infection, reaching epidemic levels in all but the south of Brazil, with estimated monthly peaks varying from 3·2 cases to 15 cases per 10 000 livebirths.The distribution of infection-related microcephaly after Zika virus outbreaks has varied across time and Brazilian regions. Reasons for these apparent differences remain to be elucidated.None.

  • Discovery of a single male Aedes aegypti (L.) in Merseyside, England.
    Discovery of a single male Aedes aegypti (L.) in Merseyside, England. [Journal Article]Parasit Vectors 2017 Jun 24; 10(1):309.PVDallimore T, Hunter T, Medlock JM, et al. The finding of the single male Ae. aegypti, while significant, presents no apparent disease risk to public health, and the follow-up survey suggests that there was no established population. However, t...The mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions where it is the major vector of dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and more recently Zika virus. Given its importance as a vector of arboviruses and its propensity to be transported to new regions, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has placed Ae. aegypti on a list of potentially invasive mosquito species. It was previously reported in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1865 and 1919 but did not establish on either occasion. It is now beginning to reappear in European countries and has been recorded in the Netherlands (not established) and Madeira (Portugal), as well as southern Russia, Georgia and Turkey.During summer 2014, a single male Ae. aegypti was captured during mosquito collections in north-western England using a sweep net. Morphological identification complimented by sequencing of the ITS2 rDNA, and cox1 mtDNA regions, confirmed the species. Following confirmation, a programme of targeted surveillance was implemented around the collection site by first identifying potential larval habitats in greenhouses, a cemetery, a farm and industrial units. Despite intensive surveillance around the location, no other Ae. aegypti specimens were collected using a combination of sweep netting, larval dipping, mosquito magnets, BG sentinel traps and ovitraps. All species collected were native to the UK.The finding of the single male Ae. aegypti, while significant, presents no apparent disease risk to public health, and the follow-up survey suggests that there was no established population. However, this report does highlight the need for vigilance and robust surveillance, and the requirement for procedures to be in place to investigate such findings.

  • Suppression of chikungunya virus replication and differential innate responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells during co-infection with dengue virus.
    Suppression of chikungunya virus replication and differential innate responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells during co-infection with dengue virus. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 23; 11(6):e0005712.PNRuiz Silva M, Aguilar Briseño JA, Upasani V, et al. Dengue and chikungunya are viral diseases transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. With an estimated 390 million infected people per year dengue virus (DENV) currently causes the most p...Publisher Full TextDengue and chikungunya are viral diseases transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. With an estimated 390 million infected people per year dengue virus (DENV) currently causes the most prevalent arboviral disease. During the last decade chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large outbreaks and has expanded its territory causing millions of cases in Asia, Africa and America. The viruses share a common mosquito vector and during the acute phase cause similar flu-like symptoms that can proceed to more severe or debilitating symptoms. The growing overlap in the geographical distribution of these mosquito-borne infections has led to an upsurge in reported cases of DENV/CHIKV co-infections. Unfortunately, at present we have little understanding of consequences of the co-infections to the human host. The overall aim of this study was to define viral replication dynamics and the innate immune signature involved in concurrent DENV and CHIKV infections in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We demonstrate that concomitant infection resulted in a significant reduction of CHIKV progeny and moderate enhancement of DENV production. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of DENV on CHIKV infection occurred independently of DENV replication. Furthermore, changes in type I IFN, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1 and IP-10 production were observed during concomitant infections. Notably, co-infections led to a significant increase in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, cytokines that are widely considered to play a crucial role in the early pathogenesis of both viral diseases. In conclusion, our study reveals the interplay of DENV/CHIKV during concomitant infection and provides a framework to investigate viral interaction during co-infections.

  • Detection of the Northeastern African Rift Valley Fever Virus Lineage During the 2015 Outbreak in Mauritania.
    Detection of the Northeastern African Rift Valley Fever Virus Lineage During the 2015 Outbreak in Mauritania. [Journal Article]Open Forum Infect Dis 2017; 4(2):ofx087.OFBob NS, Bâ H, Fall G, et al. The Northeastern Africa lineage of RVF was responsible for the outbreak in Mauritania in 2015. Co-circulation of multiples arboviruses was detected. This calls for systematic differential diagnosis and...PMC Free Full TextPublisher Full TextRift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients.An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania. Overall, 184 suspected cases from different localities were identified by 26 health facilities. Blood samples were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the Institut Pasteur de Dakar (IPD). Sequencing of partial genomes and phylogenetic analyses were performed on RT-PCR-positive samples. As part of routine surveillance at IPD, samples were also screened for dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses by ELISA and RT-PCR.Of the 184 suspected cases, there were 57 confirmed cases and 12 deaths. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences indicated an emergence of a virus that originated from Northeastern Africa. Our results show co-circulation of other arboviruses in Mauritania-dengue, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and West Nile viruses.The Northeastern Africa lineage of RVF was responsible for the outbreak in Mauritania in 2015. Co-circulation of multiples arboviruses was detected. This calls for systematic differential diagnosis and highlights the need to strengthen arbovirus surveillance in Africa.

  • Immunopathology of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Lessons Learned from Patients and Animal Models.
    Immunopathology of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Lessons Learned from Patients and Animal Models. [Journal Article]Annu Rev Virol 2017 Jun 21.ARNg LFP Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes acute and chronic arthritis. The virus reemerged in the Indian Ocean islands in 2005-2006 and is responsible for outbreaks in the ...Publisher Full TextChikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes acute and chronic arthritis. The virus reemerged in the Indian Ocean islands in 2005-2006 and is responsible for outbreaks in the Caribbean islands and the Americas since late 2013. Despite the wealth of research over the past 10 years, there are no commercially available antiviral drugs or vaccines. Treatment usually involves analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Most studies have been focused on understanding the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection through clinical observation and with animal models. In this review, the clinical manifestations of CHIKV that define the disease and the use of relevant animal models, from mice to nonhuman primates, are discussed. Understanding key cellular factors in CHIKV infection and the interplay with the immune system will aid in the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches to combat this painful viral disease in humans. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 4 is September 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.