Chikungunya Virus Net is the web resource for anyone interested in chikungunya. The objectives of Chikungunya Virus Net are to be the public and professional information resource for chikungunya and to serve as a network in the exchange of information and news related to chikungunya.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an insect-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus, that is spread by Aedes mosquitoes. Chikungunya infection causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue, and can be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue is common. There have been recent breakouts of chikungunya in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. In recent decades mosquito vectors of chikungunya have spread to Europe and the Americas. In 2007, disease transmission was reported for the first time in Europe. There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving the symptoms.
- Vigilância Epidemiológica alerta para risco de febre chikungunya no Rio - EBC
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 22:26:
- Chikungunya Transmission in France - Scientist (blog)
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 21:01:
- Chikungunya virus rife in Jamaica - Cayman Compass
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 05:01:
- Chikungunya outbreak in France - Newstrack India
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 16:55:
- More West Nile, Chikungunya virus cases reported in El Paso - El Paso Times
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 15:38:
- Chikungunya, mosquito-borne virus, infected more than 200 Canadians - CBC.ca
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 08:35:
- American Red Cross to Participate in Cerus' IDE Study to Address Chikungunya ... - DigitalJournal.com
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:34:
- Four Cases of Chikungunya in France are Reported to WHO - Infection Control Today
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 07:08:
- One new imported chikungunya case - Cayman Compass
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 05:04:
- LETTER OF THE DAY - Don't flood hospitals with chikungunya cases - Jamaica Gleaner
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 04:01:
- Bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCPs) synthesis, protects against bone loss induced by Chikungunya virus infection.
Chen W, Foo SS, Taylor A, et al. Bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCPs) synthesis, protects against bone loss induced by Chikungunya virus infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Virol 2014 Oct 22.The recent global resurgence of arthritogenic alphaviruses, in particular chikungunya virus (CHIKV), highlights an urgent need for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. While there has been significant progress in defining the pathophysiology of alphaviral disease, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in CHIKV-induced arthritis or potential therapeutic options to treat the severe arthritic symptoms associated with infection. Here, we used micro-computed tomographic (μCT) and histomorphometric analyses to provide previously undescribed evidence of reduced bone volume in proximal tibial epiphysis of CHIKV-infected mice compared to mock controls. This was associated with a significant increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) ratio in infected murine joints and in the serum of CHIKV patients. Expression levels of the monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) including, MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-2/CCL8 and MCP-3/CCL7, were also highly elevated in joints of CHIKV-infected mice, accompanied by increased cellularity within the bone marrow in tibial epiphysis and ankle joints. Both this effect and CHIKV-induced bone loss were significantly reduced by treatment with the MCPs inhibitor, bindarit. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a unique role for MCPs in promoting CHIKV-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss during disease and suggest that inhibition of MCPs with bindarit may be an effective therapy for patients affected with alphaviral-induced bone loss.Arthritogenic alphaviruses including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) cause worldwide outbreaks of polyarthritis, which can persist in patients for months following infection. Previous studies have shown that host pro-inflammatory soluble factors are associated with CHIKV disease severity. Furthermore, it is established that chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2/MCP-1) are important in cellular recruitment and inducing bone-resorbing osteoclast (OC) formation. Here, we show that CHIKV replicate in bone and trigger bone loss by increasing the RANKL/OPG ratio. CHIKV infection results in MCP-induced cellular infiltration in the inflamed joints and bone loss can be ameliorated by treatment with an MCP drug inhibitor, bindarit. Taken together, our data reveal a previously undescribed role for MCPs in CHIKV-induced bone loss: one of recruiting monocytes/OC precursors to joint sites and thereby favouring a pro-osteoclastic microenvironment. This suggests that bindarit may be an effective treatment for alphavirus-induced bone loss and arthritis in humans.
- The Causes and Consequences of Childhood Encephalitis in Asia.
Britton PN, Khandaker G, Booy R, et al. The Causes and Consequences of Childhood Encephalitis in Asia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Infect Disord Drug Targets 2014 Oct 21.Encephalitis is caused by inflammation and/or infection of the brain. It is a common condition in Asian children in whom it is most frequently caused by Japanese encephalitis virus, associated with a considerable burden of disease. Other common causes in Asia include: enteroviruses (especially enterovirus 71), dengue, influenza, the herpesviruses, measles, mumps and rubella viruses. Rabies continues to result in high mortality mostly in Asian children, which represents missed opportunities for prevention. Asia has also seen a number of emerging viral encephalitides including: Nipah, chikungunya, Chandipura and Me Tri viruses. We review the aetiology, epidemiology and outcome of encephalitis in Asian children and identify priorities for public health practice and research.
- [Isolation of the Chikungunya virus in Moscow from the Indonesian visitor (September, 2013)].
[Isolation of the Chikungunya virus in Moscow from the Indonesian visitor (September, 2013)]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]Vopr Virusol 2014 May-Jun; 59(3):28-34.The results of the virological identification of the Chikungunya fever case in Moscow (September, 2013) in an Indonesian visitor are presented. The clinic, electron microscopy, and molecular genetic data are discussed. The Ghikungunya virus (CHIKV) strain CHIKVILEIV-Moscow/1/2013 belonging to the Asian genotype (ID GenBank KF872195) was deposited into the Russian State Collection of viruses (GKV 1239; 18.11.2013).
- Chikungunya Virus Glycoproteins Pseudotype with Lentiviral Vectors and Reveal a Broad Spectrum of Cellular Tropism.
Hu D, Zhang J, Wang H, et al. Chikungunya Virus Glycoproteins Pseudotype with Lentiviral Vectors and Reveal a Broad Spectrum of Cellular Tropism. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e110893.Outbreaks of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has been documented in over 40 countries, resulting in clinical symptoms characterized by fever and joint pain. Diagnosing CHIKV in a clinical lab setting is often omitted because of the high lab safety requirement. An infection system that mimics CHIKV infection will permit clinical evaluation of the production of neutralizing antibody for both disease diagnostics and treatment.We generated a CHIKV construct expressing CHIKV structural proteins. This construct permits the production of CHIKV pseudo-viral particles with a luciferase reporter. The pseudo-virus was able to infect a wide range of cell lines. The pseudovirus could be neutralized by the addition of neutralizing antibodies from patients.Taken together, we have developed a powerful system that can be handled at biosafety level 2 laboratories for evaluation of existence of CHIKV neutralizing antibodies.
- Prevalence of Patients with Acute Febrile Illnesses and Positive Dengue NS1 Tests in a Tertiary Hospital in Papua New Guinea.
Asigau V, Lavu EK, McBride WJ, et al. Prevalence of Patients with Acute Febrile Illnesses and Positive Dengue NS1 Tests in a Tertiary Hospital in Papua New Guinea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Oct 20.Because the prevalence of dengue fever in urban settings in Papua New Guinea is unknown, we investigated the presence of dengue using the NS1 antigen test in an outpatient-based prospective observational study at Port Moresby General Hospital. Of 140 patients with acute febrile illnesses, dengue fever was diagnosed in 14.9% (20 of 134; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 9.6-22.4). Malaria (2 of 137; 1.5%; 95% CI = 0.3-5.7), chikungunya (3 of 140; 2.1%; 95% CI = 0.6-6.6), and bacterial bloodstream infections (0 of 80; 0%; 95% CI = 0-5.7) were uncommon. Dengue fever should no longer be considered rare in Papua New Guinea.
- Long-term persistence of Chikungunya virus neutralizing antibodies in human populations of North Eastern Thailand.
Nitatpattana N, Kanjanopas K, Yoksan S, et al. Long-term persistence of Chikungunya virus neutralizing antibodies in human populations of North Eastern Thailand. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Virol J 2014 Oct 21; 11(1):183.Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak recurrences in Thailand are unpredictable and separated by unexplained and often long silent epidemiological periods that can last for several years. These silent periods could be explained in part by the fact that infection with one CHIKV strain confers lasting natural immunity, even against other CHIKV strains. In this study we evaluated the persistence of CHIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies in the population of Chumpae District, Khon Kaen Province, nineteen years after a CHIKV outbreak occurred in the same area in 1991.Overall 39% (44/111) of 111 former patients had neutralizing antibodies reacting against CHIKV ECSA strain. Consistently high titers of neutralizing antibodies were found in 75% (33/44) of all positively-reacting sera, 70% of which (23/33) were collected from individuals amongst the >60 years old age group. Although the prevalence found in Pong Haeng village (70%) was significantly higher than the prevalence detected in the Nong Thum village (14%), control study villages without known previous Chikungunya epidemics had a high Chikungunya neutralizing antibody prevalence (65%).More than one-third of the pre-exposed population had persisting natural immunity that was more likely boosted by recent and repetitive exposure to the emerging ECSA CHIKV in Thailand. Also, Chikungunya virus appears to largely circulate in the country with a great variability appears between villages or area probably associated with the vector abundance and efficiency. Altogether these results show a potential for a lifelong immunity against CHIKV. Given the rapid spread of the highly pathogenic ECSA strain in Southern Thailand, the development of CHIK vaccine is strongly recommended.
- Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation.
Williams GM, Faraji A, Unlu I, et al. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e110035.The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010-2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector.
- Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.
Dhiman RC Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India. [Journal Article, Review]Front Public Health 2014.:168.The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.
- A novel mode of ISG15 mediated protection against influenza A virus and Sendai virus in mice.
Morales DJ, Monte K, Sun L, et al. A novel mode of ISG15 mediated protection against influenza A virus and Sendai virus in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Virol 2014 Oct 15.AbstractPublisher Full TextISG15 is a diubiquitin-like modifier and one of the most rapidly induced genes upon type I interferon stimulation. Hundreds of host proteins and a number of viral proteins have been shown to be ISGylated, and understanding how these modifications affect the interferon response and virus replication has been of considerable interest. ISG15(-/-) mice exhibit increased susceptibility to viral infection, and in the case of influenza B virus and vaccinia virus, ISG15 conjugation has been shown to restrict virus replication in vivo. A number of studies have also found that ISG15 is capable of antagonizing replication of some viruses in tissue culture. However, recent findings have demonstrated that ISG15 can protect mice from Chikungunya virus infection without affecting virus burden. In order to better understand the function of ISG15 in vivo, we characterized the pathogenesis of influenza A virus and Sendai virus in ISG15(-/-) mice. We found that ISG15 protects mice from virus induced lethality by a conjugation dependent mechanism in both of these models. However, surprisingly, we found that ISG15 had minimal effect on virus replication, and did not have an obvious role in the modulation of the acute immune response to infection. Instead, we observed an increase in the number of diseased small airways in mice lacking ISG15. This ability of ISG15 to protect mice in a conjugation-dependent, but non-antiviral, manner from respiratory virus infection represents a previously undescribed role for ISG15 and demonstrates the importance of further characterization of ISG15 in vivo.It has previously been demonstrated that ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to a number of viral infections. As one of the most strongly induced genes after type I interferon stimulation, analysis of ISG15 function has largely focused on its role as an antiviral molecule during acute infection. While a number of studies have shown that ISG15 does have a small effect on virus replication in tissue culture, few studies have confirmed this mechanism of protection in vivo. In these studies we have found that while ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to influenza A virus and Sendai virus infections, ISGylation does not appear to mediate this protection through the direct inhibition of virus replication or the modulation of the acute immune response. Thus in addition to showing a novel mode of ISG15 mediated protection from virus infection, this study demonstrates the importance of studying the role of ISG15 in vivo.
- Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas.
Carvalho/ RG, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, Braga IA Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2014 Sep; 109(6):787-796.AbstractPublisher Full TextThe geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI) for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District). In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world.