Chikungunya Virus Net is the web resource for anyone interested in chikungunya. The objectives of Chikungunya Virus Net are to be the public and professional information resource for chikungunya and to serve as a network in the exchange of information and news related to chikungunya.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an insect-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus, that is spread by Aedes mosquitoes. Chikungunya infection causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue, and can be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue is common. There have been recent breakouts of chikungunya in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. In recent decades mosquito vectors of chikungunya have spread to Europe and the Americas. In 2007, disease transmission was reported for the first time in Europe. There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving the symptoms.
- Three new chikungunya cases - Cayman Compass
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 05:03:
- Four confirmed cases of Chikungunya in France - World Health Organization (press release)
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 09:41:
- Vere remembers teachers, student who died from chikungunya complications - Jamaica Gleaner
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 05:01:
- Vector Control Services defends Chikungunya response - Stabroek News
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 09:25:
- France Reports Cases of Chikungunya - Youth Health Magzine
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 00:36:
- 20 casos de chikungunya en Managua - El Nuevo Diario
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 11:02:
- New Caledonia wary of chikungunya - Radio New Zealand
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 01:02:
- France confirms four cases of chikungunya in Montpellier - Vaccine News Daily
Mon, 27 Oct 2014 15:09:
- The Chikungunya and Ebola Pandemic - NYCaribNews
Sun, 26 Oct 2014 16:08:
- Continúa plan nacional contra dengue y chikungunya - Correo del Caroní
Sun, 26 Oct 2014 03:01:
- Chikungunya Virus Infections Among Travelers-United States, 2010-2013.
Lindsey NP, Prince HE, Kosoy O, et al. Chikungunya Virus Infections Among Travelers-United States, 2010-2013. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Oct 27.Chikungunya virus is an emerging threat to the United States because humans are amplifying hosts and competent mosquito vectors are present in many regions of the country. We identified laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections with diagnostic testing performed in the United States from 2010 to 2013. We described the epidemiology of these cases and determined which were reported to ArboNET. From 2010 to 2013, 115 laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections were identified. Among 55 cases with known travel history, 53 (96%) reported travel to Asia and 2 (4%) to Africa. No locally acquired infections were identified. Six patients had detectable viremia after returning to the United States. Only 21% of identified cases were reported to ArboNET, with a median of 72 days between illness onset and reporting. Given the risk of introduction into the United States, healthcare providers and public health officials should be educated about the recognition, diagnosis, and timely reporting of chikungunya virus disease cases.
- MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS STRAINS CIRCULATING IN NEW DELHI, INDIA.
Afreen N, Deeba F, Khan WH, et al. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS STRAINS CIRCULATING IN NEW DELHI, INDIA. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Microbiol Immunol 2014 Oct 25.Dengue and chikungunya are acute viral infections with overlapping clinical symptoms. The two diseases are transmitted by common mosquito vectors resulting in their co-circulation in a region. Molecular and serological tests specific for both dengue and chikungunya infections were carried out on 87 acute phase blood samples collected from suspected dengue/chikungunya patients in Delhi from September to December, 2011. RT-PCR and IgM ELISA were done for detection of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). NS1 ELISA and IgG ELISA were also conducted for detection of DENV specific antigen and secondary DENV infection. DENV infection was detected in 49% and CHIKV infection in 29% samples by RT-PCR. Co-infection by DENV and CHIKV were detected in 10% of the samples. DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were detected in the study. Nine DENV-1 strains, 6 DENV-2 strains and 20 CHIKV strains were characterized by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of respective envelope protein genes. DENV-1 strains grouped in American African genotype, DENV- 2 strains in Cosmopolitan genotype and CHIKV strains in East Central South African (ECSA) genotype by phylogenetic analysis. This is one of the few studies that describe phylogeny of two dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1 and DENV-2) and chikungunya virus. The surveillance and monitoring of DENV and CHIKV strains are important for design of strategies for control of impending epidemic.
- Chikungunya: acute Fever, rash and debilitating arthralgias in a returning traveler from haiti.
Anderson KB, Pureza V, Walker PF Chikungunya: acute Fever, rash and debilitating arthralgias in a returning traveler from haiti. [Journal Article]J Travel Med 2014 Nov; 21(6):418-20.The following case report details a case of chikungunya fever in a returning traveler from Haiti. The report highlights the clinical presentation and natural history of the disease, and emphasizes that chikungunya has become established in the western hemisphere, with a resultant need for heightened provider awareness.
- Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections - an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012-2014.
Roth A, Mercier A, Lepers C, et al. Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections - an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012-2014. [Journal Article]Euro Surveill 2014; 19(41)
- Cytokines in acute chikungunya.
Venugopalan A, Ghorpade RP, Chopra A Cytokines in acute chikungunya. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e111305.AbstractPMC Free Full TextPublisher Full TextAcute chikungunya (CHIKV) is predominantly an acute onset of excruciatingly painful, self-limiting musculoskeletal (MSK) arbovirus illness and this was further reported by us during the 2006 Indian epidemic [Chopra et al. Epidemiol Infect 2012]. Selected serum cytokines profile in subjects within one month of onset of illness is being presented.Out of 509 clinical CHIKV cases (43% population) identified during a rural population survey, 225 subjects consented blood investigations. 132 examined within 30 days of febrile onset are the study cohort. Anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies tested by immunochromatography and indirect immunofluorescence respectively. Interferons (IFN)-α, -β and -γ, Interferon Gamma-Induced Protein-10 (CXCL-10/IP-10), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-13 (IL-13), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1), Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) performed by ELISA. Samples collected from neighboring community a year prior to the epidemic used as healthy controls.Seropositivity for anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG was 65% and 52% respectively. IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-1β showed intense response in early acute phase. Cytokines (particularly TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) was maximum in extended symptomatic phase and remained elevated in recovered subjects. Higher (p<0.05) IFN and IL-4 seen in patients seropositive for anti-CHIKV IgG. Elderly cases (≥65 years) showed elevated cytokines (except IFN) and anti-CHIKV antibodies near similar to younger subjects. Significant correlations (p<0.05) found between cytokines and clinical features (fatigue, low back ache, myalgia) and anti-CHIKV antibodies.An intense cytokine milieu was evident in the early and immediate persistent symptomatic phase and in recovered subjects. Early persistent IgM and lower IgG to anti-CHKV and intense Th2 cytokine phenotype seem to be associated with delay in resolution of MSK symptoms. Intriguingly, maximum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 with low anti-CHIKV IgM response found in subjects recovered from CHIKV within one month of illness.
- High-Content Image-Based Screening of a Signal Transduction Pathway Inhibitor Small-Molecule Library against Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses.
Mudhasani R, Kota KP, Retterer C, et al. High-Content Image-Based Screening of a Signal Transduction Pathway Inhibitor Small-Molecule Library against Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Biomol Screen 2014 Oct 23.AbstractPublisher Full TextHigh-content image-based screening was developed as an approach to test a small-molecule library of compounds targeting signal transduction pathways for antiviral activity against multiple highly pathogenic RNA viruses. Of the 2843 compounds screened, 120 compounds exhibited ≥60% antiviral activity. Four compounds (E225-0969, E528-0039, G118-0778, and G544-0735), which were most active against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and showed broad-spectrum antiviral activity, were selected for further evaluation for their concentration-response profile and cytotoxicity. These compounds did not show any visible cytotoxicity at the highest concentration of compound tested (200 µM). All four of these compounds were more active than ribavirin against several viruses. One compound, E225-0969, had the lowest effective concentration (EC50 = 1.9-8.92 µM) for all the viruses tested. This compound was 13- and 43-fold more inhibitory against RVFV and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), respectively, than ribavirin. The highest selectivity index (>106.2) was for E225-0969 against CHIKV. Time-of-addition assays suggested that all four lead compounds targeted early steps in the viral life cycle (entry and/or replication) but not virus egress. Overall, this work demonstrates that high-content image analysis can be used to screen chemical libraries for new antivirals against highly pathogenic viruses.
- Arboviral Bottlenecks and Challenges to Maintaining Diversity and Fitness during Mosquito Transmission.
Forrester NL, Coffey LL, Weaver SC Arboviral Bottlenecks and Challenges to Maintaining Diversity and Fitness during Mosquito Transmission. [REVIEW]Viruses 2014; 6(10):3991-4004.AbstractPublisher Full TextThe term arbovirus denotes viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, such as ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting arthropods. The infection of these vectors produces a certain set of evolutionary pressures on the virus; involving migration from the midgut, where the blood meal containing the virus is processed, to the salivary glands, in order to transmit the virus to the next host. During this process the virus is subject to numerous bottlenecks, stochastic events that significantly reduce the number of viral particles that are able to infect the next stage. This article reviews the latest research on the bottlenecks that occur in arboviruses and the way in which these affect the evolution and fitness of these viruses. In particular we focus on the latest research on three important arboviruses, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Chikungunya viruses and compare the differing effects of the mosquito bottlenecks on these viruses as well as other evolutionary pressures that affect their evolution and transmission.
- Bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCPs) synthesis, protects against bone loss induced by Chikungunya virus infection.
Chen W, Foo SS, Taylor A, et al. Bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCPs) synthesis, protects against bone loss induced by Chikungunya virus infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Virol 2014 Oct 22.AbstractPublisher Full TextThe recent global resurgence of arthritogenic alphaviruses, in particular chikungunya virus (CHIKV), highlights an urgent need for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. While there has been significant progress in defining the pathophysiology of alphaviral disease, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in CHIKV-induced arthritis or potential therapeutic options to treat the severe arthritic symptoms associated with infection. Here, we used micro-computed tomographic (μCT) and histomorphometric analyses to provide previously undescribed evidence of reduced bone volume in proximal tibial epiphysis of CHIKV-infected mice compared to mock controls. This was associated with a significant increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) ratio in infected murine joints and in the serum of CHIKV patients. Expression levels of the monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) including, MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-2/CCL8 and MCP-3/CCL7, were also highly elevated in joints of CHIKV-infected mice, accompanied by increased cellularity within the bone marrow in tibial epiphysis and ankle joints. Both this effect and CHIKV-induced bone loss were significantly reduced by treatment with the MCPs inhibitor, bindarit. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a unique role for MCPs in promoting CHIKV-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss during disease and suggest that inhibition of MCPs with bindarit may be an effective therapy for patients affected with alphaviral-induced bone loss.Arthritogenic alphaviruses including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) cause worldwide outbreaks of polyarthritis, which can persist in patients for months following infection. Previous studies have shown that host pro-inflammatory soluble factors are associated with CHIKV disease severity. Furthermore, it is established that chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2/MCP-1) are important in cellular recruitment and inducing bone-resorbing osteoclast (OC) formation. Here, we show that CHIKV replicate in bone and trigger bone loss by increasing the RANKL/OPG ratio. CHIKV infection results in MCP-induced cellular infiltration in the inflamed joints and bone loss can be ameliorated by treatment with an MCP drug inhibitor, bindarit. Taken together, our data reveal a previously undescribed role for MCPs in CHIKV-induced bone loss: one of recruiting monocytes/OC precursors to joint sites and thereby favouring a pro-osteoclastic microenvironment. This suggests that bindarit may be an effective treatment for alphavirus-induced bone loss and arthritis in humans.
- The Causes and Consequences of Childhood Encephalitis in Asia.
Britton PN, Khandaker G, Booy R, et al. The Causes and Consequences of Childhood Encephalitis in Asia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Infect Disord Drug Targets 2014 Oct 21.Encephalitis is caused by inflammation and/or infection of the brain. It is a common condition in Asian children in whom it is most frequently caused by Japanese encephalitis virus, associated with a considerable burden of disease. Other common causes in Asia include: enteroviruses (especially enterovirus 71), dengue, influenza, the herpesviruses, measles, mumps and rubella viruses. Rabies continues to result in high mortality mostly in Asian children, which represents missed opportunities for prevention. Asia has also seen a number of emerging viral encephalitides including: Nipah, chikungunya, Chandipura and Me Tri viruses. We review the aetiology, epidemiology and outcome of encephalitis in Asian children and identify priorities for public health practice and research.
- [Isolation of the Chikungunya virus in Moscow from the Indonesian visitor (September, 2013)].
[Isolation of the Chikungunya virus in Moscow from the Indonesian visitor (September, 2013)]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]Vopr Virusol 2014 May-Jun; 59(3):28-34.The results of the virological identification of the Chikungunya fever case in Moscow (September, 2013) in an Indonesian visitor are presented. The clinic, electron microscopy, and molecular genetic data are discussed. The Ghikungunya virus (CHIKV) strain CHIKVILEIV-Moscow/1/2013 belonging to the Asian genotype (ID GenBank KF872195) was deposited into the Russian State Collection of viruses (GKV 1239; 18.11.2013).