Chikungunya Virus Net is the web resource for anyone interested in chikungunya. The objectives of Chikungunya Virus Net are to be the public and professional information resource for chikungunya and to serve as a network in the exchange of information and news related to chikungunya.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an insect-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus, that is spread by Aedes mosquitoes. Chikungunya infection causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue, and can be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue is common. There have been recent breakouts of chikungunya in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. In recent decades mosquito vectors of chikungunya have spread to Europe and the Americas. In 2007, disease transmission was reported for the first time in Europe. There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving the symptoms.
- Chikungunya: Jamaica PM Miller declares 'state of emergency' - Outbreak News Today
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 11:00:
- The cost of chikungunya to Jamaica - Jamaica Observer
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 10:25:
- Costa Rica Confirms First Chikungunya Case Originating in Country - Latin American Herald Tribune
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 02:46:
- 1st Indigenous Case of Chikungunya in Costa Rica Reported - The Costa Rican Times
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 00:47:
- Jamaica Declares State of Emergency over Chikungunya Virus - teleSUR English
Sun, 19 Oct 2014 16:11:
- Chikungunya outbreak affects French Polynesia - TopNews New Zealand
Sat, 18 Oct 2014 09:21:
- Jamaica Declares National Emergency Over Chikungunya Virus - Prensa Latina
Sat, 18 Oct 2014 04:23:
- Chikungunya outbreak spreads in French Polynesia - Radio New Zealand
Sat, 18 Oct 2014 03:12:
- Colombia chikungunya cases double, Puerto Rico cases increase 1500 - Outbreak News Today
Sat, 18 Oct 2014 01:33:
- Painful Chikungunya Outbreak Reaches French Polynesia - VICE News
Fri, 17 Oct 2014 22:23:
- PRO/EDR> Chikungunya (62): Pacific, Tokelau Islands
Sun, 19 Oct 2014 17:26:12
Chikungunya -- Tokelau, Tokelau
The Tokelau National Games for this year  have been cancelled as a result of a chikungunya outbreak in the islands.
The sports coordinator for the event, Susan Perez, says the health of local people and the containment of the epidemic were the 2 driving factors to the board's decision.
She says a state of emergency was declared on the island where the games were to be hosted, so it made sense to cancel the event. The National Games were to be hosted by Fakaofo.
[Fakaofo, with a
- Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.
Dhiman RC Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India. [Journal Article, Review]Front Public Health 2014.:168.The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.
- A novel mode of ISG15 mediated protection against influenza A virus and Sendai virus in mice.
Morales DJ, Monte K, Sun L, et al. A novel mode of ISG15 mediated protection against influenza A virus and Sendai virus in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Virol 2014 Oct 15.ISG15 is a diubiquitin-like modifier and one of the most rapidly induced genes upon type I interferon stimulation. Hundreds of host proteins and a number of viral proteins have been shown to be ISGylated, and understanding how these modifications affect the interferon response and virus replication has been of considerable interest. ISG15(-/-) mice exhibit increased susceptibility to viral infection, and in the case of influenza B virus and vaccinia virus, ISG15 conjugation has been shown to restrict virus replication in vivo. A number of studies have also found that ISG15 is capable of antagonizing replication of some viruses in tissue culture. However, recent findings have demonstrated that ISG15 can protect mice from Chikungunya virus infection without affecting virus burden. In order to better understand the function of ISG15 in vivo, we characterized the pathogenesis of influenza A virus and Sendai virus in ISG15(-/-) mice. We found that ISG15 protects mice from virus induced lethality by a conjugation dependent mechanism in both of these models. However, surprisingly, we found that ISG15 had minimal effect on virus replication, and did not have an obvious role in the modulation of the acute immune response to infection. Instead, we observed an increase in the number of diseased small airways in mice lacking ISG15. This ability of ISG15 to protect mice in a conjugation-dependent, but non-antiviral, manner from respiratory virus infection represents a previously undescribed role for ISG15 and demonstrates the importance of further characterization of ISG15 in vivo.It has previously been demonstrated that ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to a number of viral infections. As one of the most strongly induced genes after type I interferon stimulation, analysis of ISG15 function has largely focused on its role as an antiviral molecule during acute infection. While a number of studies have shown that ISG15 does have a small effect on virus replication in tissue culture, few studies have confirmed this mechanism of protection in vivo. In these studies we have found that while ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to influenza A virus and Sendai virus infections, ISGylation does not appear to mediate this protection through the direct inhibition of virus replication or the modulation of the acute immune response. Thus in addition to showing a novel mode of ISG15 mediated protection from virus infection, this study demonstrates the importance of studying the role of ISG15 in vivo.
- Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas.
Carvalho/ RG, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, Braga IA Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2014 Sep; 109(6):787-796.The geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI) for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District). In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world.
- Chikungunya Viral Fitness Measures within the Vector and Subsequent Transmission Potential.
Christofferson RC, Chisenhall DM, Wearing HJ, et al. Chikungunya Viral Fitness Measures within the Vector and Subsequent Transmission Potential. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e110538.AbstractPMC Free Full TextPublisher Full TextGiven the recent emergence of chikungunya in the Americas, the accuracy of forecasting and prediction of chikungunya transmission potential in the U.S. requires urgent assessment. The La Reunion-associated sub-lineage of chikungunya (with a valine substitution in the envelope protein) was shown to increase viral fitness in the secondary vector, Ae. albopictus. Subsequently, a majority of experimental and modeling efforts focused on this combination of a sub-lineage of the East-Central-South African genotype (ECSA-V) - Ae. albopictus, despite the Asian genotype being the etiologic agent of recent chikungunya outbreaks world-wide. We explore a collection of data to investigate relative transmission efficiencies of the three major genotypes/sub-lineages of chikungunya and found difference in the extrinsic incubation periods to be largely overstated. However, there is strong evidence supporting the role of Ae. albopictus in the expansion of chikungunya that our R0 calculations cannot attribute to fitness increases in one vector over another. This suggests other ecological factors associated with the Ae. albopictus-ECSA-V cycle may drive transmission intensity differences. With the apparent bias in literature, however, we are less prepared to evaluate transmission where Ae. aegypti plays a significant role. Holistic investigations of CHIKV transmission cycle(s) will allow for more complete assessment of transmission risk in areas affected by either or both competent vectors.
- A perspective on targeting non-structural proteins to combat neglected tropical diseases: Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses.
Bhakat S, Karubiu W, Jayaprakash V, et al. A perspective on targeting non-structural proteins to combat neglected tropical diseases: Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Eur J Med Chem 2014 Oct 6.:677-702.AbstractPublisher Full TextNeglected tropical diseases are major causes of fatality in poverty stricken regions across Africa, Asia and some part of America. The combined potential health risk associated with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses); Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile Virus (WNV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is immense. These arboviruses are either emerging or re-emerging in many regions with recent documented outbreaks in the United States. Despite several recent evidences of emergence, currently there are no approved drugs or vaccines available to counter these diseases. Non-structural proteins encoded by these RNA viruses are essential for their replication and maturation and thus may offer ideal targets for developing antiviral drugs. In recent years, several protease inhibitors have been sourced from plant extract, synthesis, computer aided drug design and high throughput screening as well as through drug reposition based approaches to target the non-structural proteins. The protease inhibitors have shown different levels of inhibition and may thus provide template to develop selective and potent drugs against these devastating arboviruses. This review seeks to shed light on the design and development of antiviral drugs against DENV, WNV and CHIKV to date. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides the first comprehensive update on the development of protease inhibitors targeting non-structural proteins of three most devastating arboviruses, DENV, WNV and CHIKV.
- Official communique: Chikungunya virus - a press release of the Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular regarding the safety of transfusions and transplants.
Langhi Júnior D, Covas DT, Bianco C, et al. Official communique: Chikungunya virus - a press release of the Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular regarding the safety of transfusions and transplants. [Journal Article]Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter 2014 Sep-Oct; 36(5):309-10.
- Aedes hensilli as a Potential Vector of Chikungunya and Zika Viruses.
Ledermann JP, Guillaumot L, Yug L, et al. Aedes hensilli as a Potential Vector of Chikungunya and Zika Viruses. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Oct; 8(10):e3188.AbstractPublisher Full TextAn epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses.
- The olfactory nerve: a shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system.
Riel DV, Verdijk R, Kuiken T The olfactory nerve: a shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Pathol 2014 Oct 8.AbstractPublisher Full TextThe olfactory nerve consists mainly of olfactory receptor neurons and directly connects the nasal cavity with the central nervous system (CNS). Each olfactory receptor neuron projects a dendrite into the nasal cavity on the apical side, and on the basal side extends its axon through the cribriform plate into the olfactory bulb of the brain. Viruses that can use the olfactory nerve as a shortcut into the CNS include influenza A virus, herpesviruses, poliovirus, paramyxoviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, La Crosse virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and bunyaviruses. However, mechanisms of transport via the olfactory nerve and subsequent spread through the CNS are poorly understood. Proposed mechanisms are either infection of olfactory receptor neurons themselves or diffusion through channels formed by olfactory ensheathing cells. Subsequent virus spread through the CNS could occur by multiple mechanisms, including transsynaptic transport and microfusion. Viral infection of the CNS can lead to damage from infection of nervous cells per se, from the immune response, or from a combination of both. Clinical consequences range from nervous dysfunction in the absence of histopathological changes to severe meningoencephalitis and neurodegenerative disease.
- Structure-activity relationship study of arbidol derivatives as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.
Di Mola A, Peduto A, La Gatta A, et al. Structure-activity relationship study of arbidol derivatives as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Bioorg Med Chem 2014 Sep 16.Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne arthrogenic Alphavirus, causes an acute febrile illness in humans, that is, accompanied by severe joint pains. In many cases, the infection leads to persistent arthralgia, which may last for weeks to several years. The re-emergence of this infection in the early 2000s was exemplified by numerous outbreaks in the eastern hemisphere. Since then, the virus is rapidly spreading. Currently, no drugs have been approved or are in development for the treatment of CHIKV, which makes this viral infection particularly interesting for academic medicinal chemistry efforts. Several molecules have already been identified that inhibit CHIKV replication in phenotypic virus-cell-based assays. One of these is arbidol, a molecule that already has been licensed for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. For structural optimization, a dedicated libraries of 43 indole-based derivatives were evaluated leading to more potent analogues (IIIe and IIIf) with anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) activities higher than those of the other derivatives, including the lead compound, and with a selective index of inhibition 13.2 and 14.6, respectively, higher than that of ARB (4.6).
- In silico models for predicting vector control chemicals targeting Aedes aegypti.
Devillers J, Lagneau C, Lattes A, et al. In silico models for predicting vector control chemicals targeting Aedes aegypti. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]SAR QSAR Environ Res 2014 Oct 2.:1-31.AbstractPublisher Full TextHuman arboviral diseases have emerged or re-emerged in numerous countries worldwide due to a number of factors including the lack of progress in vaccine development, lack of drugs, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, climate changes, societal behaviours, and economical constraints. Thus, Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue fever flaviviruses and is also responsible for several recent outbreaks of the chikungunya alphavirus. As for the other mosquito species, the A. aegypti control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. However, because of increasing resistance to the different families of insecticides, reduction of Aedes populations is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the unquestionable utility of insecticides in fighting mosquito populations, there are very few new insecticides developed and commercialized for vector control. This is because the high cost of the discovery of an insecticide is not counterbalanced by the 'low profitability' of the vector control market. Fortunately, the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling allows the reduction of time and cost in the discovery of new chemical structures potentially active against mosquitoes. In this context, the goal of the present study was to review all the existing QSAR models on A. aegypti. The homology and pharmacophore models were also reviewed. Specific attention was paid to show the variety of targets investigated in Aedes in relation to the physiology and ecology of the mosquito as well as the diversity of the chemical structures which have been proposed, encompassing man-made and natural substances.